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Coronavirus: Will offices be safe for a return to work?

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As lockdowns start to ease in many countries, so the tentative return to work begins, leaving people understandably concerned about how safe space an office will be in the middle of a global pandemic.

Alongside some mouldy old food in the communal fridges, there is likely to be an increase in the amount of technology used to monitor employees.

From thermal cameras taking your temperature when you enter the building to apps or wearables to alert you if you get too close to colleagues, work could soon have the feel of the Minority Report movie.

The Edge in Amsterdam was voted one of the smartest and most sustainable buildings in the world a few years ago, and it is adapting its sensor-packed offices to the new reality of living with a contagious and potentially life-threatening virus.

Coen van Oostrom, the founder of the real-estate firm that built it, told the BBC that there are a couple of “no brainer” changes that can happen immediately.

Air quality

“The doors can currently be opened by hand but it is a small step to be able to open them by voice control or via an app, and we want to do that to make sure the virus isn’t spreading that way.

“We also have cameras that can see how many people are on a floor and with a software update they are also able to measure how far people are away from each other, and we can send a warning to people’s phones if they are too close to each other.

“Not everyone likes it and there is a feeling that it is an intrusion on their privacy, so we haven’t decided yet if we want to use it when everyone is back in the office.”

The Edge, unlike most buildings, already provides employees with a phone app that allows them to see what temperature the office is and what air quality is like, as well as allowing them to order their lunch from the canteen.

Take-up hasn’t been huge. While in the past no one really cared about air quality, now that the chances of the virus spreading are higher if not enough fresh air is circulating, people might start taking notice of it, thinks Mr van Oostrom.

Seating plans will also have to change to make sure social distancing rules can be enforced but Susan Clarke, a smart buildings expert with research firm Verdantix, thinks employers are unlikely to radically alter their working practices.

“Hot-desking will remain and given the recession we are moving into right now, most firms won’t be able to take on more space – but it might be re-thought, so as one person checks out of a desk, a work order is assigned to that area so a cleaner can do some disinfecting.”

Some lighting firms, such as Vital Vio, are offering what they describe as safe disinfection lighting, which uses violet light mixed with white light to kill some bacteria on surfaces. While these might have a use in hotels or very high occupancy offices, the expense may not be justifiable to many businesses, thinks Ms Clarke.

Will thermal cameras help to end the lockdown?

Temperature testing

Flir Technology has been making thermal cameras for use in airports and onboard police helicopters for years but has seen exponential growth in the last few months.

Now the firm is seeing interest from factories and businesses.

“Basically, every industry that needs to protect its workers and its customers,” said Flir’s vice president of marketing for Flir, Ezra Merrill.

The cameras measure a five-millimetre square area near the tear duct, which has been judged as the best place to record skin temperature. Users wearing spectacles have to remove them.

Its algorithms take account of a range of factors, such as time of day, whether it is sunny or raining, as well as the fact that people have a range of normal body temperature.

But the device is just one part of the puzzle, and a second step would be to take a person’s temperature using a medical grade thermometer, said Mr Merrill.

The technology was recently tested at a US factory, where reaction from employees was mixed.

“It was a full range as you’d expect, from people who were excited and happy to do it to those who thought they were getting a retina scan.”

In fact the camera does not take a picture at all and it is not possible to identify people from the image, but Mr Merrill acknowledges there could be privacy issues. And in some places it could be illegal.

“Some countries prohibit employee health monitoring. In Italy for example there are laws stating that you can’t monitor health, and that includes parameters such as temperature,” said Ms Clarke.

Better coffee

Lawyer Ravi Naik said businesses have to be careful they are not using “tech for tech’s sake”.

“Is this to facilitate an understanding of who can work and who can’t, and if not what is the significance of it? Because it is such an interference with basic human rights that there has to be a high level of evidential justification to deploy this tech, and I just don’t think that is the case right now.”

The radical, long-term solution might involve not having to go into a building at all.

Barclays Bank’s chief executive Jes Staley has said that having thousands of workers in big expensive city offices “may be a thing of the past” as the home-working lockdown era proves many can do their jobs perfectly well at home.

As a real estate developer, Mr van Oostrom obviously disagrees.

Offices are “social beehives” said Mr van Oostrom, places where we collaborate and socialise – but they probably need better coffee

He thinks we will see a hybrid model with more people working from home and employers having “to seduce people to come into the office”.

“Making offices fun places to be will be more important than ever,” he said.

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India GDP Growth Rate Descend to 3.1% in 2019-20.

Provisional Estimates of Annual National Income, 2019-20 and Quarterly Estimates (q4) of Gross Domestic Product, 2019-20

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India GDP Growth Rate Descend to 3.1% in 2019-20

The National Statistical Office (NSO), Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, has released the Provisional Estimates of National Income for the financial year 2019-20, both at Constant (2011-12) and Current Prices. These are presented in Statements 1 to 4.

2.         Quarterly Estimates of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for the fourth quarter (January-March) of 2019-20, both at Constant (2011-12) and Current Prices along with the corresponding quarterly estimates of expenditure components of GDP are also released. These are presented in Statements 5 to 8. Estimates including growth rates of Q1, Q2 and Q3 of 2019-20 released earlier have been revised in accordance with the revision policy of National Accounts.

3.         In view of the global COVID-19 pandemic and consequent nationwide lockdown measures implemented since March, 2020; the data flow from the economic entities has been impacted. As some of these units are yet to resume operations and owing to the fact that the statutory time-lines for submitting the requisite financial returns have been extended by the Government, these Estimates are based on the available data. Consequently, the Estimates (Quarterly as well as Annual) are likely to undergo revision.

 4.        The Second Advance Estimates (SAE) of National Income for the year 2019-20 were released on 28th February, 2020. These estimates have now been revised incorporating latest estimates of Agricultural Production, Index of Industrial Production (IIP) and performance of key sectors like, Railways, Transport other than Railways, Communication, Banking, Insurance and Government Revenue Expenditure. With the introduction of Goods and Services Tax (GST) from 1st July 2017 and consequent changes in the tax structure, the total Tax Revenue used for GDP compilation includes Non-GST Revenue and GST Revenue. For obtaining Taxes on Products at Constant Prices, volume extrapolation is done using volume growth of taxed goods and services and aggregated to get the total volume of taxes.

Early results on the performance of Corporate Sector for April-December 2019 which were used in SAE have been revised on the basis of latest available information. Besides information on indicators like Deposits & Credits, Passenger and Freight Earnings of Railways, Passenger Traffic and Cargo Handled at Airports, Cargo Handled at Major Sea Ports, Sales of Commercial Vehicles etc., available for first 9/10 months of the financial year used in the SAE have been revised with the updated data upto March, 2020.

5.        Real GDP or Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at Constant (2011-12) Prices in the year 2019-20 is now estimated to attain a level of ₹ 145.66 lakh crore, as against the First Revised Estimate of GDP for the year 2018-19 of ₹ 139.81 lakh crore, released on 31st January 2020. The growth in GDP during 2019-20 is estimated at 4.2 percent as compared to 6.1 percent in 2018-19.

6.         GDP at Current Prices in the year 2019-20 is estimated to attain a level of ₹ 203.40 lakh crore, as against the First Revised Estimates of ₹ 189.71 lakh crore in 2018-19, showing a growth rate of 7.2 percent as compared to 11.0 percent in 2018-19.

7.         The Per Capita Income in real terms (at 2011-12 Prices) during 2019-20 is estimated to attain a level of ₹ 94,954 as compared to ₹ 92,085 in the year 2018-19, resulting in growth of 3.1 percent during 2019-20, as against 4.8 per cent in the previous year. The Per Capita Income at current prices during 2019-20 is estimated to be ₹ 134,226, showing a rise of 6.1 percent as compared to ₹ 1,26,521 during 2018-19.

8.         GDP at Constant (2011-12) Prices in Q4 of 2019-20 is estimated at ₹ 38.04 lakh crore, as against ₹ 36.90 lakh crore in Q4 of 2018-19, showing a growth of 3.1 percent.

9.         Changes in the main indicators used in the estimation are listed below:

Indicators Annual Quarterly
2018-19 2019-20 Q4 2018-19 Q4 2019-20
Production of Coal 7.4 -0.5 6.4 7
Production of Crude Oil -4.2 -5.9 -5.5 -5.7
Production of Cement 13.3 -0.8 11.7 -4.9
Consumption of Steel 7.5 1.3 9.4 -3.9
Sales of Commercial Vehicles 17.6 -28.8 3.8 -42.1
Cargo Handled at Major Sea Ports 2.9 0.9 0.1 0.1
Cargo Handled at Airports 2.5 -9 -0.9 -13.6
Passengers Handled at Airports 11.8 -1 3.9 -9.5
Railways  
    (i) Net Tonne Kilometers 6.6 -4.5 5.8 -6.7
    (ii) Passenger Kilometers 1.7 -4.3 1 -14.2
Aggregate Bank Deposits 10 7.9 67.1 -53
Aggregate Bank Credits 13.3 6.1 -1.7 -20
LIC Premium – Non-Linked 6.1 11.4 18.2 -11.6
LIC Premium – Linked -8.4 -10.5 -7.5 -19.3
CPI General Index 3.4 4.8 2.5 6.7
IIP  
    (i) Mining 2.8 1.7 2.2 4.5
    (ii) Manufacturing 3.8 -1.1 1.4 -5.7
    (iii) Electricity 5.2 0.8 1.5 1.1
    (iv) Metallic Minerals 2.4 14.3 2.2 12.9
Indicators Annual Quarterly
2018-19 2019-20 Q4 2018-19 Q4 2019-20
WPI  
    (i) Food Articles 0.4 8.4 3.9 8
    (ii) Minerals 11.4 12.5 10.5 8.7
    (iii) Manufactured Products 3.7 0.3 2.4 0.5
    (iv) All Commodities 4.3 1.7 2.9 2.3

10.       Estimates of Gross/Net National Income and Per Capita Income along with GVA at Basic Prices by kind of economic activity, Expenditures on GDP for Provisional Estimates and the four quarters of 2017-18, 2018-19 and 2019-20 at Constant (2011-12) and Current Prices, along with percent changes and the rates of expenditure components of GDP, are given in Statements 1 to 8.

11.       The next release of quarterly GDP estimates for the quarter April-June, 2020 (Q1 of 2020-21) will be on 31.08.2020.

TATEMENT 1: Provisional Estimates of National Income and Expenditures on GDP, 2019-20 (at 2011- 12 Prices)            
(` crore)            
           
S. No. Item 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 Percentage Change Over Previous Year  
(2nd RE) (1st RE) (PE)  
          2018-19 2019-20
  Domestic Product          
1 GVA at Basic Prices 1,20,74,413 1,28,03,128 1,33,01,120 6 3.9
2 Net Taxes on Products 11,00,747 11,78,298 12,64,831 7 7.3
3 GDP (1+2) 1,31,75,160 1,39,81,426 1,45,65,951 6.1 4.2
4 NDP 1,16,86,409 1,23,72,051 1,28,93,977 5.9 4.2
  Final Expenditures          
5 PFCE 73,79,819 79,08,057 83,25,907 7.2 5.3
6 GFCE 13,43,222 14,78,565 16,52,367 10.1 11.8
7 GFCF 40,61,195 44,60,967 43,34,091 9.8 -2.8
8 CIS 2,15,795 2,64,415 2,69,489 22.5 1.9
9 Valuables 1,92,661 1,69,734 1,92,629 -11.9 13.5
10 Exports of Goods and Services 26,01,777 29,22,543 28,17,660 12.3 -3.6
11 Imports of Goods and Services 30,78,132 33,42,777 31,15,388 8.6 -6.8
12 Discrepancies 4,58,823 1,19,923 89,196    
13 GDP 1,31,75,160 1,39,81,426 1,45,65,951 6.1 4.2
  Rates to GDP          
14 PFCE 56 56.6 57.2    
15 GFCE 10.2 10.6 11.3    
16 GFCF 30.8 31.9 29.8    
17 CIS 1.6 1.9 1.9    
18 Valuables 1.5 1.2 1.3    
19 Exports of Goods and Services 19.7 20.9 19.3    
20 Imports of Goods and Services 23.4 23.9 21.4    
21 Discrepancies 3.5 0.9 0.6    
22 GDP 100 100 100    
  National Product          
23 GNI 1,30,29,307 1,38,29,068 1,44,05,339 6.1 4.2
24 NNI 1,15,40,556 1,22,19,693 1,27,33,366 5.9 4.2
                  Per Capita Income, Product and Final Consumption            
25 Population* (in million) 1314 1327 1341 1 1.1
26 Per Capita GDP (₹) 1,00,268 1,05,361 1,08,620 5.1 3.1
27 Per Capita GNI (₹) 99,158 1,04,213 1,07,422 5.1 3.1
28 Per Capita NNI (₹) 87,828 92,085 94,954 4.8 3.1
29 Per Capita PFCE (₹) 56,163 59,594 62,087 6.1

4.2

*Relates to mid-financial year

RE: Revised Estimates

PE: Provisional Estimates

STATEMENT 2: Provisional Estimates of National Income and Expenditures on GDP, 2019-20 (at Current Prices)            
(` crore)            
S. No. Item 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 Percentage Change Over Previous Year  
(2nd RE) (1st RE) (PE)
          2018-19 2019-20
  Domestic Product          
1 GVA at Basic Prices 1,55,13,122 1,71,39,962 1,83,43,237 10.5 7
2 Net taxes on products 15,85,182 18,31,275 19,96,612 15.5 9
3 GDP (1+2) 1,70,98,304 1,89,71,237 2,03,39,849 11 7.2
4 NDP 1,53,34,357 1,69,91,613 1,82,21,249 10.8 7.2
  Final Expenditures          
5 PFCE 1,00,90,759 1,12,54,014 1,22,62,064 11.5 9
6 GFCE 18,38,117 21,04,235 24,46,579 14.5 16.3
7 GFCF 47,99,139 54,93,320 54,72,006 14.5 -0.4
8 CIS 2,51,062 3,20,076 3,38,357 27.5 5.7
9 Valuables 2,19,322 2,00,184 2,24,006 -8.7 11.9
10 Exports of Goods and Services 32,11,521 37,66,294 37,45,473 17.3 -0.6
11 Imports of Goods and Services 37,51,389 44,68,166 42,98,950 19.1 -3.8
12 Discrepancies 4,39,775 3,01,280 1,50,314    
13 GDP 1,70,98,304 1,89,71,237 2,03,39,849 11 7.2
  Rates to GDP          
14 PFCE 59 59.3 60.3    
15 GFCE 10.8 11.1 12    
16 GFCF 28.1 29 26.9    
17 CIS 1.5 1.7 1.7    
18 Valuables 1.3 1.1 1.1    
19 Exports of Goods and Services 18.8 19.9 18.4    
20 Imports of Goods and Services 21.9 23.6 21.1    
21 Discrepancies 2.6 1.6 0.7    
22 GDP 100 100 100    
  National Product          
23 GNI 1,69,13,491 1,87,68,912 2,01,18,353 11 7.2
24 NNI 1,51,49,545 1,67,89,288 1,79,99,754 10.8 7.2
25 GNDI 1,73,19,231 1,92,62,652 2,06,30,319 11.2 7.1
26 NNDI 1,55,55,285 1,72,83,028 1,85,11,719 11.1 7.1
Per Capita Income, Product and Final Consumption            
27 Per Capita GDP (₹) 1,30,124 1,42,963 1,51,677 9.9 6.1
28 Per Capita GNI (₹) 1,28,718 1,41,439 1,50,025 9.9 6.1
29 Per Capita NNI (₹) 1,15,293 1,26,521 1,34,226 9.7 6.1
30 Per Capita GNDI (₹) 1,31,805 1,45,159 1,53,843 10.1 6
31 Per Capita PFCE (₹) 76,794 84,808 91,440 10.4 7.8
             
Note: Estimates of Disposable Income are compiled only at current prices.    
STATEMENT 3: Provisional Estimates of GVA at Basic Price by Economic Activity (at 2011-12 prices)                 
(` crore)          
         
Industry 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 Percentage Change Over Previous Year  
(2nd RE) (1st RE) (PE)  
        2018-19 2019-20
1. Agriculture, Forestry & Fishing 18,28,329 18,72,339 19,48,110 2.4 4
2. Mining & Quarrying 3,66,496 3,45,069 3,55,680 -5.8 3.1
3. Manufacturing 21,90,791 23,16,643 23,17,280 5.7 0.03
4. Electricity, Gas, Water Supply & other Utility Services 2,74,104 2,96,560 3,08,832 8.2 4.1
5. Construction 9,62,009 10,20,314 10,33,276 6.1 1.3
6. Trade, Hotels, Transport, Communication and Services related to Broadcasting 23,09,860 24,88,049 25,77,945 7.7 3.6
7.  Financial,  Real Estate  &  Professional  Services 26,09,016 27,86,855 29,15,680 6.8 4.6
8.  Public Administration, Defence  and Other Services 15,33,809 16,77,298 18,44,316 9.4 10
 GVA  at  Basic Prices 1,20,74,413 1,28,03,128 1,33,01,120 6

3.9

STATEMENT 4: Provisional Estimates of GVA at Basic Price by Economic Activity (at Current Prices)          
(` crore)          
         
Industry 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 Percentage Change Over Previous Year  
(2nd RE) (1st RE) (PE)  
        2018-19 2019-20
1. Agriculture, Forestry & Fishing 27,96,908 29,22,846 32,57,443 4.5 11.4
2. Mining & Quarrying 3,57,788 3,89,322 3,93,102 8.8 1
3. Manufacturing 25,46,608 27,66,767 27,75,587 8.6 0.3
4. Electricity, Gas, Water Supply & other Utility Services 4,25,101 4,56,413 4,86,516 7.4 6.6
5. Construction 11,97,931 13,44,279 13,84,895 12.2 3
6. Trade, Hotels, Transport, Communication and Services related to Broadcasting 28,12,706 31,42,620 33,16,653 11.7 5.5
7.  Financial,  Real Estate  &  Professional  Services 32,06,559 36,22,130 38,42,524 13 6.1
8.  Public Administration, Defence  and Other Services 21,69,522 24,95,584 28,86,517 15 15.7
 GVA  at  Basic Prices 1,55,13,122 1,71,39,962 1,83,43,237 10.5 7

STATEMENT 5: Quarterly Estimates of GVA at Basic Prices for 2019-20 (at 2011-12 prices)

                                       
(` crore)                                        
Industry 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 Percentage Change Over Previous Year                                
        2018-19 2019-20                              
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4  
1. Agriculture, Forestry & Fishing 4,11,366 3,46,486 5,77,270 4,93,208 4,27,177 3,55,283 5,88,679 5,01,199 4,39,843 3,67,758 6,09,883 5,30,626 3.8 2.5 2 1.6 3 3.5 3.6 5.9
2. Mining & Quarrying 95,649 75,002 86,635 1,09,209 88,634 69,723 82,797 1,03,915 92,807 68,978 84,610 1,09,285 -7.3 -7 -4.4 -4.8 4.7 -1.1 2.2 5.2
3. Manufacturing 5,07,569 5,48,729 5,32,956 6,01,537 5,61,875 5,79,649 5,60,719 6,14,400 5,78,936 5,76,112 5,56,494 6,05,738 10.7 5.6 5.2 2.1 3 -0.6 -0.8 -1.4
4. Electricity, Gas, Water Supply & other Utility Services 69,504 69,698 66,968 67,935 74,998 76,567 73,338 71,655 81,628 79,525 72,817 74,863 7.9 9.9 9.5 5.5 8.8 3.9 -0.7 4.5
5. Construction 2,34,844 2,26,098 2,43,408 2,57,660 2,49,913 2,37,907 2,59,449 2,73,046 2,62,828 2,44,092 2,59,357 2,67,000 6.4 5.2 6.6 6 5.2 2.6 -0.04 -2.2
6. Trade, Hotels, Transport, Communication and Services related to Broadcasting 5,61,803 5,44,822 5,65,597 6,37,636 6,09,330 5,87,337 6,09,595 6,81,786 6,30,860 6,11,609 6,35,724 6,99,751 8.5 7.8 7.8 6.9 3.5 4.1 4.3 2.6
7.  Financial, Real Estate  &  Professional  Services 7,15,262 7,66,707 5,62,903 5,64,147 7,57,850 8,16,260 5,99,505 6,13,241 8,03,322 8,64,974 6,19,229 6,28,155 6 6.5 6.5 8.7 6 6 3.3 2.4
8.  Public Administration, Defence and Other Services 3,56,199 3,85,050 4,00,441 3,92,120 3,87,589 4,19,300 4,32,842 4,37,564 4,17,483 4,65,096 4,80,107 4,81,630 8.8 8.9 8.1 11.6 7.7 10.9 10.9 10.1
GVA  at  Basic Prices 29,52,197 29,62,592 30,36,177 31,23,451 31,57,366 31,42,027 32,06,925 32,96,807 33,07,707 32,78,144 33,18,220 33,97,049 6.9 6.1 5.6 5.6 4.8 4.3 3.5 3
                                         
STATEMENT 6:  Quarterly Estimates of GVA at Basic Prices for 2019-20 (at Current Prices)                                        
(` crore)                                        
Industry 2017-18 2018-19 2019-20 Percentage Change Over Previous Year                                
        2018-19 2019-20                              
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4  
1. Agriculture, Forestry & Fishing 6,14,682 5,44,703 9,03,485 7,34,038 6,55,799 5,60,416 9,24,273 7,82,358 7,12,222 6,08,227 10,53,034 8,83,959 6.7 2.9 2.3 6.6 8.6 8.5 13.9 13
2. Mining & Quarrying 89,447 69,310 86,182 1,12,849 98,202 80,476 97,355 1,13,290 1,04,945 75,826 92,789 1,19,543 9.8 16.1 13 0.4 6.9 -5.8 -4.7 5.5
3. Manufacturing 5,83,784 6,33,546 6,20,420 7,08,858 6,64,844 6,92,530 6,73,890 7,35,502 6,94,993 6,87,906 6,64,294 7,28,394 13.9 9.3 8.6 3.8 4.5 -0.7 -1.4 -1
4. Electricity, Gas, Water Supply & other Utility Services 1,06,824 1,07,304 1,03,950 1,07,023 1,13,836 1,18,456 1,13,804 1,10,316 1,24,751 1,22,547 1,15,188 1,24,030 6.6 10.4 9.5 3.1 9.6 3.5 1.2 12.4
5. Construction 2,87,451 2,80,664 3,05,759 3,24,057 3,24,955 3,14,756 3,45,528 3,59,041 3,50,920 3,25,815 3,49,232 3,58,928 13 12.1 13 10.8 8 3.5 1.1 -0.03
6. Trade, Hotels, Transport, Communication and Services related to Broadcasting 6,72,181 6,61,102 6,94,315 7,85,108 7,58,987 7,44,890 7,78,223 8,60,520 8,06,915 7,83,108 8,21,438 9,05,193 12.9 12.7 12.1 9.6 6.3 5.1 5.6 5.2
7.  Financial,  Real Estate  &  Professional  Services 8,67,582 9,44,159 6,96,275 6,98,542 9,74,229 10,68,600 7,85,893 7,93,409 10,56,866 11,38,695 8,18,382 8,28,581 12.3 13.2 12.9 13.6 8.5 6.6 4.1 4.4
8.  Public Administration, Defence  and Other Services 4,92,027 5,44,308 5,73,664 5,59,522 5,65,871 6,23,661 6,49,806 6,56,245 6,37,682 7,23,713 7,60,995 7,64,128 15 14.6 13.3 17.3 12.7 16 17.1 16.4
GVA  at  Basic Prices 37,13,978 37,85,096 39,84,050 40,29,998 41,56,723 42,03,786 43,68,772 44,10,682 44,89,292 44,65,838 46,75,351 47,12,757 11.9 11.1 9.7 9.4 8 6.2 7

6.8

 

STATEMENT 7: Quarterly Estimates of Expenditures on GDP for 2019-20 (at 2011-12 prices)

STATEMENT 8: Quarterly Estimates of Expenditures on GDP for 2019-20 (at Current Prices)

 ( crore)

Data Source : Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation

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